Video Marketing

Video marketing can bestow a multitude of benefits on a business. With online video predicted to account for 74% of all web traffic in 2017 (Bernazzani, 2017) it makes business sense to get in on the action.

Hainla (2017) discusses some of the powerful reasons behind why businesses today should use video marketing. She explains that video marketing can increase conversions and sales, stating that, ‘74% of users who watched an explainer video about a product subsequently bought it’. Hainla further states that video marketing builds trust with ‘57% of consumers [saying] that videos gave them more confidence to purchase online’.

Video marketing also has the ability to increase your search engine visibility. Moovly (2016) states that with a video embedded on your website, ‘you are 53x more likely show up on page 1 of Google’.

So what do these benefits all have in common? They increase the ability to make sales. A trusting customer is more likely to buy from you, as is a customer that is easily able to find your website on a search engine. Combined with the staggering statistic that YouTube has ‘a billion monthly active users’ (Social Media Marketo, 2016) the level of potential reach is phenomenal.

Flash + Dazzle have created a video marketing campaign entitled ‘What’s your style?’. The concept revolves around asking the question, ‘What’s your style?’, with the resulting message being that whatever your style, Flash + Dazzle can fulfil your jewellery requirements.

The ad has purposefully been left with minimal text in order to bring more impact to the final message. A hashtag has been used so that customers can engage with the video and overall marketing campaign by posting images of their Flash + Dazzle jewellery with the hashtag.

The conscious decision was made to create an ad campaign rather than an explainer video in order to drive customers to the website. When showcasing only a limited range of the products on offer, the risk can be run that customers don’t like what they see, or simply aren’t intrigued enough to visit the website. By using a campaign ad with the message that Flash + Dazzle offer something for everyone, traffic is more likely to be driven to the site.

The storyboard creation can be seen below and the video can be viewed on the  Flash + Dazzle Youtube Channel .

storyboard 1

storyboard 2.JPG

storyboard 3

 

 

 

 

References

Bernazzani, S. (2017). Why You Need to Focus on Video Marketing in 2017 [Infographic]. [online] Blog.hubspot.com. Available at: https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/2017-year-of-video-marketing#sm.000006andip2ietow232btpespihx [Accessed 5 May 2017].

Hainla, L. (2017). 8 Powerful Reasons You Need to Use Video Marketing. [online] DreamGrow. Available at: https://www.dreamgrow.com/8-reasons-why-your-business-should-use-video-marketing/ [Accessed 5 May 2017].

Moovly. (2016). 4 Great Reasons You Should Use Video Marketing. [online] Available at: https://www.moovly.com/blog/4-great-reasons-you-should-use-video-marketing [Accessed 5 May 2017].

Social Media Marketo. (2016). YouTube Stats, Facts & Video Marketing Cheat Sheet [Infographic]. [online] Available at: http://www.socialmediamarketo.com/youtube-stats-video-marketing-infographic/ [Accessed 5 May 2017].

Advertisements

Social Media Marketing

When setting up an online business, creating a social media presence may well find itself at the bottom of a long to do list. Yet evidence would indicate that positive benefits can be derived from a businesses social media presence (Nobre and Silva, 2014). With 2.8 billion active social media users worldwide (Hutchinson, 2017), neglect this vital marketing tool at your peril!

When considering which social media platforms to utilise, research is key. An online business targeting individuals in their 40’s, is likely to find that a social media presence on snapchat is unlikely to derive any benefit. Given that the snapchat demographic is substantially younger than the target market; your target audience simply won’t see you. You’re marketing in the wrong place! As well as demographic research, user numbers and conversion rates are all incredibly insightful when it comes to platform selection.

The first platform selected was Facebook. With user numbers standing at 1.9 billion monthly, typical user age being between 18 and 49 and a predominantly female user base (Hutchinson, 2017); Facebook captures Flash + Dazzle’s target audience perfectly.

Facebook also provides access to analytics, an incredibly useful resource providing data on levels of interaction with posts. The data can be used to interpret how successful a campaign has been, and what topics users really engage with. This allows valuable lessons to be learnt, and the marketing strategy improved, hopefully resulting in a new more successful campaign in the future.

With the ability to post photos, company updates, new product information and advertising videos, Facebook is a great way to inform and persuade current and potential customers; aiding relationship development and increasing sales (Nobre and Silva, 2014).

Analysis of similar company Facebook profiles found similar features across all. All the cover photo’s either identified what product the business sells, or projected a certain image or feeling about the what kind of business it is. Monica Vinader identifies as a company selling minimalist luxury jewellery. Net-A-Porter projects as a high end luxury brand. Whilst Stella & Dot conveys the image of trend following affordable jewellery. All pages have a call to action button below the cover photo which is cleverly used as the only link to the website.

fb monica vinader.JPG.pngfb netaporter.JPG.pngfb stella and dot.JPG.png

These techniques have been replicated within Flash + Dazzle’s Facebook page. The results of which can be seen below or by clicking the link to be redirected to the Flash + Dazzle Facebook Page .

fb flashandd.png

Twitter has been selected as the second platform for social media marketing. Instagram and Pinterest have slightly larger audience shares and demographically are a better fit due to their strong female user base sitting within Flash + Dazzle’s target market age bracket (Greenwood, Perrin and Duggan, 2016). However consideration needs to be given as to whether it is viable to create the level of content required in order to be effective. 

Ellering (2016) collated data from ten social media studies in order to provide a more definitive answer as to how many social media posts were required across each platform in order to provide maximum business benefit. The data found that the optimum levels to achieve the maximum benefit of, ‘increased awareness, engagement, shares and traffic’, were 11 Pinterest pins per day and 1-2 Instagram posts. 

As a start up business, Flash + Dazzle do not believe it is viable to create enough visual content to sustain a successful social media campaign on Pinterest or Instagram. As initial stock images will come from suppliers, and subsequent photo shoots will be bi-monthly at best, visual imagery is likely to be in short supply.

Due to communication through Pinterest and Instagram being through visuals its more difficult to communicate with and engage your audience. You can’t persuade or inform. People like your image or they don’t. The ability to communicate on Twitter through tweets makes it an attractive social media proposition. Given that you can also tweet photos when available as well as sharing and videos, Twitter appeared to be the more appropriate choice.

The same imagery has been used on Flash + Dazzle’s twitter page to ensure visual consistency and can be seen below or by visiting the Flash + Dazzle Twitter Page .

twitter flashandd.png

References

Ellering, N. (2016). How Often To Post On Social Media According To 10 Studies. [online] CoSchedule Blog. Available at: https://coschedule.com/blog/how-often-to-post-on-social-media/ [Accessed 3 May 2017].

Greenwood, S., Perrin, A. and Duggan, M. (2016). Social Media Update 2016. [online] Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. Available at: http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/11/11/social-media-update-2016/ [Accessed 3 May 2017].

Hutchinson, A. (2017). Top Social Network Demographics 2017 [Infographic]. [online] Social Media Today. Available at: http://www.socialmediatoday.com/social-networks/top-social-network-demographics-2017-infographic [Accessed 3 May 2017].

Nobre, H. and Silva, D. (2014). Social Network Marketing Strategy and SME Strategy Benefits. Journal of Transnational Management, [online] 19(2), pp.138-151. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com.proxy.worc.ac.uk/doi/pdf/10.1080/15475778.2014.904658?needAccess=true [Accessed 3 May 2017].

HTML Email/Newsletter Campaign

‘Despite its age and the emergence of allegedly more sophisticated marketing techniques, email marketing remains the most cost effective – in terms of return on investment (ROI) – of any marketing technique (both on and offline)’ (Hayes, 2013, p.15).

Hayes assertions are supported by many up to date sources such as Econsultancy’s 2016 email marketing census. 73% of respondents rated email marketing as excellent or good in relation to return on investment (Davis, 2016). This was the highest rating of all channels surveyed.

econsultancy channel stats 2.JPG.png  Source, (Davis, 2016)

Hesilrige (2017) further states that in 2011, ‘the Direct Marketing Association estimated that email marketing typically returns £40 for every £1 invested’. It’s not hard to see why email marketing shows no signs of losing popularity. Given the little to no cost aspect and colossal potential reach; email marketing is an attractive proposition and Flash + Dazzle therefore intend to implement their own email marketing campaign.

Bluefountainmedia.com (2009) suggests that there are 5 key email marketing elements to consider in order to get the best results from an email marketing campaign. These are: content, personalisation, timing, subject lines and device optimisation.

email-marketing-strategies-for-business-growth 2 .jpg.pngSource, (Bluefountainmedia.com, 2009)

Content

Successful email marketing strategies are typically image based and in general, there should always be more visuals than text (Bluefountainmedia.com, 2009). Users want to be able to understand the point quickly. Too much text will leave customers feeling bored and likely to delete the email before the key message has been put across. Bold visuals, and emphasised short, sharp messages are key in order to catch the readers attention (FreshMail, 2017). Flash + Dazzle will therefore keep their email marketing concise, visual and engaging to maximise impact.

Personalisation

MailChimp (2017) states, ‘It’s common knowledge that segmenting your email-marketing lists helps you get better open and click rates. By narrowing your focus and sending messages to targeted groups within your lists, your recipients will find your campaigns more relevant—and relevant campaigns get better results’. Wilt (2016) also states that ‘marketers have found a 760% increase in email revenue from segmented campaigns’.

Whilst the benefits of personalisation are clear, Flash + Dazzle intend to implement an unpersonalised email marketing campaign intially due to the lack of subscribers and subsequent lack of segments. Once enough subscribers have been obtained, they will diversify and set up segmented email marketing campaigns once specific segments have been identified. Flash + Dazzle intend to increase subscribers through a ‘refer a friend’ email marketing campaign allowing new email addresses to be captured.

Timing

Selecting the correct time to email your audience is crucial. Catching the customer at the right time can have a positive impact on the success of a campaign. Experian Marketing Services (2012) conducted research into the most effective time of day to send email marketing. They found the optimum time to be between 8pm and 11.59pm. This time period provided the highest percentage of unique opens as well as the highest percentage click through rate.

Flash + Dazzle intend to email out to their customers during this time period. As they are targeting females between the ages of 21 and 36 with a high level of disposable income, these individuals are likely to be employed full time. Therefore this time period will typically fit in with end of the working day, once the customer has returned home and has settled in for the evening and is likely to check their email.  

Subject Lines

Wilt (2016) states that emails with personalised subject lines are, ‘26% more likely to be opened’. The subject line provides a first impression and therefore must engage the recipient immediately in order to entice them to open the email. It must then deliver what it promises. ‘Clickbait’ subject lines may increase open rates, but will do nothing for click through’s.

Device Optimisation

Williams (2016) states that 71.2% of recipients will delete an email if it’s not mobile optimised. With smartphone ownership numbers at an all time high, this statistic is hardly surprising. Flash + Dazzle will therefore ensure that their email marketing campaigns are optimised across mobile, tablet and pc platforms to ensure maximum engagement.

Flash + Dazzle’s Strategy

Flash + Dazzle intend to implement an email marketing campaign that is focused on promotional discounts. They will run two campaigns; ‘First Look Exclusive’ which will run monthly and ‘Refer a Friend’ which will run every four months.

‘First Look Exclusive’ will provide a discount on one newly launched product, with the aim to improve brand loyalty. An example of the campaign material can be seen below.

newsletter 1

newsletter2

newsletter 3.PNG

The second campaign, ‘Refer a Friend’ will offer site wide discount for the subscriber and their friend when a subscriber refers a friend by supplying their email address to Flash + Dazzle. This campaign is aimed at growing the subscriber list and subsequently the size of Flash + Dazzle’s customer base.

The ‘First Look Exclusive’ discount has been restricted to one specific product and the site wide discount restricted to only three times a years as Watkins (2014) states that ‘discounts used too often begin a downward pricing spiral that may eventually damage your ability to sell the product at full price’. 

Flash + Dazzle’s email marketing campaign schedule can be seen below. 

Campaign Schedule.JPG

The text in the email marketing campaign where appropriate will be linked to seasonal themes. For example, October ‘Refer a Friend’ will be linked to obtaining discount for Christmas gifts. November and December ‘First Look Exclusive’ will also be linked to the Christmas season in relation to suggested jewellery for partywear.

The plugin Mailpoet  has been added to the Flash + Dazzle site to allows users to subscribe to email marketing by simply filling in their name and email address. The link to subscribe has been inserted as a page into the footer menu of every site page to allow the clean and seamless look of the website to be retained.

footer image.png

footer image2.png

MailPoet was selected over other available plugins as Flash + Dazzle’s mail subscriber plugin due to it’s simple and easy to use format. Whilst the example marketing material has been created with Mailchimp, the material created can be used with Mailpoet.

References

Bluefountainmedia.com. (2009). Top 5 Elements of Successful Email Marketing Strategies. [online] Available at: https://www.bluefountainmedia.com/blog/top-5-elements-of-successful-email-marketing-strategies/ [Accessed 2 May 2017].

Davis, B. (2016). Three key charts from our 2016 Email Marketing Census. [online] Econsultancy. Available at: https://econsultancy.com/blog/67734-three-key-charts-from-our-2016-email-marketing-census [Accessed 2 May 2017].

Experian Marketing Services (2012). Quarterly Email Benchmark Study. [online]  Available at: http://www.experian.com/assets/cheetahmail/white-papers/email-marketing-quarterly-benchmark-study-q4-2012.pdf [Accessed 2 May 2017].

FreshMail. (2017). How to create content for email campaigns – FreshMail. [online] Available at: https://freshmail.com/guide/create-content-email-campaigns/ [Accessed 2 May 2017].

Hayes, J. (2013). A crash course in email marketing for small and medium-sized businesses. 1st ed. Petersfield: Harriman House.

Hesilrige, B. (2017). 10 benefits of email marketing | Pure360. [online] Pure360. Available at: https://www.pure360.com/10-benefits-of-email-marketing/ [Accessed 2 May 2017].

MailChimp. (2017). Effects of List Segmentation on Email Marketing Stats | MailChimp. [online] Available at: https://mailchimp.com/resources/research/effects-of-list-segmentation-on-email-marketing-stats/ [Accessed 2 May 2017].

Watkins, D. (2014). What Is Discount Pricing Strategy?. [online] Smallbusiness.chron.com. Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/discount-pricing-strategy-794.html [Accessed 2 May 2017].

Williams, N. (2016). Email Marketing Stats 2016 | Clicky Media™. [online] Clicky Media™. Available at: https://www.clicky.co.uk/2016/12/email-marketing-stats-2016/ [Accessed 2 May 2017].

Wilt, A. (2016). How to Use Personalization in Email Marketing Campaigns. [online] Campaignmonitor.com. Available at: https://www.campaignmonitor.com/blog/email-marketing/2016/02/how-to-use-personalization-in-email-marketing-campaigns/ [Accessed 2 May 2017].

Web Analytics

So you’ve created an online business. You’ve successfully attracted customers to your site and are now receiving a respectable number of hits on the site each month. You could be forgiven for thinking that the hard part of setting up an e-commerce site is over; that you can now sit back, relax and watch the sales roll in.

In part there is some truth. One of the hardest aspects of setting up an online business is gaining customer attraction (Hubspot.com, 2017). If no one visits your site, you won’t make any sales and the business will fold. The hard work however, is not yet over.

Once customers are being driven to your site, understanding how they interact with the site is critical in order to understand whether customers are engaging with the site, which aspects of the site are successful and which need improving. This is where web analytics plays its vital role.

Web analytics in its broadest term can be described as the goal of understanding the online experience so that it can be improved (Peterson, 2004, p.5). Through data collection, analysis can be performed providing insight into how the consumer reacts to the website whether this be negative or positive. Change can then be implemented to improve aspects of the site with the goal being improved customer engagement and subsequently increased sales. Web analytics therefore creates a cyclical process of continuous improvement. Once an improvement is implemented web analytics ‘determine the degree to which those improvements have been successful and generate new ideas for improvement’, (Loftus, 2012).

Data can be gathered through use of a plug in, such as google analytics. I opted to use this specific plug in on my website due to its reputation as the best free web analytic tool available as stated by (Jantsch, 2012) and (Walgrove, 2016). 

The screenshot below is taken from the google analytics produced for Flash + Dazzle and shows customer behaviour on the website.

google analytics 2

The data shows a variety of information such as: how long customers spent on each page visited, what percentage of customers have exited on the landing page (known as the bounce rate), which pages are most visited and so on. Patterns and trends can be identified using this data, paving the way for improvement as discussed.

Examples of ways in which the data can be used would include analysis of a high bounce rate (Suresh, 2015). This means that customers aren’t engaging with the landing page and are exiting without exploring the site further. This is a serious issue and action would need to be taken to improve the page to entice customers to move past the landing page into the website. A further example would be customers successfully navigating through the site, but the site having a high exit rate on the product pages. This could indicate that the customers don’t feel that they have been provided with enough information to buy, and again, action would need to be taken to improve this aspect to convert the customers into sales.

Although these examples are focused on the negative data, improvements can also stem from positive data. Web pages with particularly high engagement rates, and or pages where customers are spending a considerable amount of time could be deemed successful. These pages could then be replicated within other areas of the site in order to improve success rates of other pages.

Customer behaviour and interaction however, is just one aspect of analysis. Other areas of analysis shown on the left hand menu bar can also be used to increase understanding. For example, the audience section provides demographic information which can be utilised to ascertain whether the correct target market is being attracted. This can be incredibly insightful as if the incorrect target market is being driven to the site, they may not be likely to engage with or buy from it.

google analytics 1

Data analytics can also provide insight into which keywords have driven customers to the site allowing the most attractive keywords to be focused on and utilised throughout the site. Volume of visitors can be tracked as well as identification of referral sources.

Suresh (2015) asserts that whilst data analytics can show what pages require attention, it is not able to pin point what part of the page needs improving. For instance, a high bounce rate as previously mentioned indicates that the landing page is in need of improvement. This however is as far as the insight extends. Use of heat mapping provides a visual representation of customer behaviour and can visually tell you in an instant, how customers are engaging with your page.

heatmap.png

This understanding allows a more focused change initiative to be undertaken and ensures that parts of the page that customers like and engage with, aren’t altered causing detriment to the site.

In summary, access to visual and data analytics can substantially improve efficiency, customer retention within the site, aid sales conversion and lay the foundation for new marketing strategy. Web analytics therefore are critically important to the shaping and success of an online business.

 

References

Hubspot.com. (2017). 2017 Marketing Statistics, Trends & Data – The Ultimate List of Marketing Stats. [online] Available at: https://www.hubspot.com/marketing-statistics [Accessed 2 May 2017].

Jantsch, J. (2012). The 10 Smartest Web Analytics Tools. [online] American Express – OPEN Forum. Available at: https://www.americanexpress.com/us/small-business/openforum/articles/the-10-smartest-web-analytics-tools/ [Accessed 30 Apr. 2017].

Loftus, W. (2012). Demonstrating Success: Web Analytics and Continuous Improvement. Journal of Web Librarianship, [online] 6(1), pp.45-55. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com.proxy.worc.ac.uk/doi/full/10.1080/19322909.2012.651416 [Accessed 30 Apr. 2017].

Peterson, E. (2004). Web analytics demystified. 1st ed. Portland, Or: Celilo Group Media [u.a.].

Suresh, S. (2015). 5 Ways Website Heat Maps Help You Read Visitors’ Minds. [online] VWO Blog. Available at: https://vwo.com/blog/5-ways-heat-maps-and-visual-analytics-help-conversions/ [Accessed 1 May 2017].

Walgrove, A. (2016). The Top 10 Free Content Analytics Tools. [online] The Content Strategist. Available at: https://contently.com/strategist/2016/08/02/the-top-10-free-content-analytics-tools/ [Accessed 30 Apr. 2017].

Search Engine Optimisation (SEO)

‘If the search engine robots can’t tell from your site what you do, they can’t share it with the world,’ (Ryan and Graham, 2014, p. 146).
Jones (2013, p.20) stated that, ‘Search-engine optimization, or SEO, is the process of setting up your website so that it ranks well for particular keywords within the organic search results of major search engines’.
In order to drive visitors to a website, the site must contain keywords that customers are searching for in order for the website to rank well within search engines. A high search engine ranking will increase visibility and the likelihood of the site being visited. A website that does not implement SEO techniques will effectively render the website invisible.
So how can we better understand what a customer may be searching for?
keyword generator – https://ubersuggest.io/
References
Jones, K.B. (2013) Search engine optimization: Your visual blueprint for effective Internet marketing. 3rd edn. New York: Visual.
Ryan, K. and Graham, R. (2014) Taking down Goliath: Digital marketing strategies for beating competitors with 100 times your spending power: 2014. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan.

Does Colour Choice Matter?

Before deciding which colours to use on my site, there are two key points that thought must be given to.

Firstly, the psychological effect that colour has on consumers. Colour choice can impact a consumer’s perception of the product offered and subsequently whether they choose to enter or leave the website. Singh (2006, p.783) stated that, ‘People make up their minds within 90 seconds of their initial interactions with either people or products. About 62‐90 percent of the assessment is based on colors alone’.

I have chosen to use a monochromatic scheme using the colours black and white exclusively on my website as these are the colours typically seen on high end luxury websites. Smith (2014) describes the positive connotations associated with black as adding a sense of luxury and value and goes on to describe the colour as ‘timeless, classic’. This colour scheme compliments the branding and logo I have created and supports the style of website I aim to create.

Secondly, colour contrast and legibility are key points to consider when making colour choices. Peterson (2014, pp. 246–247) stated that the ‘color of the text on your website has a significant effect on its legibility’. Peterson goes on to states that, ‘people have difficulty reading text if there isn’t enough contrast between the background color and the foreground color’. Use of an online colour contrast checker before publishing a site, will ascertain whether the colour choices would cause users any difficulty in reading the websites text. I have run an online colour contrast check using http://webaim.org/resources/contrastchecker/ the results of which can be seen below.

colour contrast checker.JPG

Given that in order to pass the AAA check, the ratio according to this site need only need be 7:1, the high contrast ratio of my colour choices should ensure that there are no readability issues.

 

References

Peterson, C. (2014) Learning responsive web design: A beginner’s guide. United States: O’Reilly Media.

Singh, S. (2006) ‘Impact of color on marketing’, Management Decision, 44(6), pp. 783–789. doi: 10.1108/00251740610673332.

Smith, J. (2014) ‘How to use the psychology of color to increase Website conversions’, Available at: https://blog.kissmetrics.com/psychology-of-color-and-conversions/ (Accessed: 6 January 2017).

 

Menus and Navigation

After conducting research on a competitor site (Marks and Spencer) as detailed in the blog post ‘researching the competitors’ I had a reasonable idea of how I wanted to lay out my site. In order to gain a firmer idea, I started researching websites closer in nature to the site I wished to create. The websites I viewed were; Net-A-Porter, Monica Vinader and Maria Black. These companies offered far more streamlined websites than Marks and Spencer and were far more in keeping with the site I wished to create.

Simplicity and ease of use were the most important factors when considering my layout as, ‘usability is a necessary condition for survival. If a website is difficult to use, people leave‘ (Nielsen,2012). I therefore decided to keep menu pages to a minimum, ensuring only critical pages were included with page names being restricted to one word. As consumer’s dominant online reading pattern is ‘F-Shaped’ (Nielsen,2006) it is incredibly important that the top paragraph, or in this site’s case the top bar menu, be clear so that consumers are drawn in and do not leave the website.

Once I had decided on the pages I wished to include on my site, I created a sitemap. A sitemap is a visual planning tool that can help clarify the content required within a website. It aids prioritising which content is important to retain and which pages to dispose of. Chapman (2011) stated that, ‘Sites without these are often unfocused, hard to navigate, and present poor user experiences’.

I have included a copy of my sitemap below, which shows the sitemap for my main menu and footer menu.

sitemap-image

Card sorting is an alternative way of arranging web content. Users can group content together in a way that makes sense to them, based on where the user would expect to find the information. As a method of organising content, this can be extremely useful as the data gathered is from the user perspective. Croft (2014), stated that, ‘User-centered techniques such as card sorting are powerful because they enable you to be much more scientific in diagnosing and fixing website problems’.

 

References

Chapman, C. (2011) ‘Why you should build A Sitemap before designing your site’, 14 January. Available at: https://blog.kissmetrics.com/build-a-sitemap/ (Accessed: 5 January 2017).

Croft, P. (2014) ‘Improving your information architecture with card sorting: A beginner’s guide – smashing magazine’, UX Design, 20 October. Available at: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/10/improving-information-architecture-card-sorting-beginners-guide/ (Accessed: 6 January 2017).

Nielsen, J. (2006) ‘F-shaped pattern for reading web content’, 17 April. Available at: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/f-shaped-pattern-reading-web-content/ (Accessed: 5 January 2017).

Nielsen, J. (2012) ‘Usability 101: Introduction to usability’, 4 January. Available at: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/usability-101-introduction-to-usability/ (Accessed: 5 January 2017).